Without immigration, Europe's population is set to decline by around 10% over the next three decades. Japan's experience serves as a warning about the difficulties of managing public finances and expanding corporate revenues against that backdrop. So is Europe's situation sustainable?
The Hong Kong dollar is tied closely to the US dollar. Monetary policy made in Washington therefore applies directly in Wan Chai and Kowloon. In recent months, the Hong Kong Monetary Authority has been obliged to shrink its balance sheet rapidly to maintain the fixed exchange rate. This serves as a real-life policy experiment of the effects of quantitative tightening in a financial system. So far, nothing has blown up, but Hong Kong equities have been under pressure as financial conditions have tightened.